Cerambyx is a coleopteran belonging to the family Cerambycidae, which consists of 35 species that are present in Western Palearctic zones. In Europe, seven species can be found: C. carinatus (Küster, 1846); C. cerdo (Linnaeus, 1758); C. dux (Faldermann, 1837); C. miles (Bonelli, 1823); C. nodulosus (Germar, 1817); C. scopolii (Füsslins, 1775) and C. welensii (Küster, 1846). Only three species can be found on the Iberian Peninsula: C. welensii, C. cerdo and C. miles.
They are large beetles that can grow up to 5 cm long, not including the antennae. The morphology of the three Iberian species is very similar, so a detailed study of some structures to differentiate them is necessary. This has caused confusion in many references. According to Vives (2001), C. cerdo is the most common species on the Iberian Peninsula, having been found in all the holm oak and oak groves, including those in Majorca. C. welensii is less distributed, so it is only found in the Beatic System, Sierra Morena, Central System, Alentejo and Algarve, Galaico-Leones forests, Cantabrian mountains, Pyrenees, Ebro Valley and Iberian System.
Both species have very similar behaviours. The adults are active at night although according to González et al (2015), in Majorca, C. cerdo seems to be more active during the day. After mating, the females lay their eggs under the bark of the trunk and inside thick branches of various leafy species of Fagus, Castanea and Ulmus, although they prefer any species of Quercus. There are also some references about Corylus and Ceratonia.
Cerambyx cerdo adults
Cerambyx welensii adults
After hatching, the larvae begin to feed on the bark. They enter the wood to stay there for two or three years until reaching a very large size, up to 7 cm. Meanwhile, they excavate a great number of large oval-shaped galleries.
C. cerdo female laying eggs
Galleries bored by Cerambyx
When the larva changes into a pupa, it excavates an exit hole in the tree to later return to the gallery inside the wood and pupate in safety.
The pupa hatches in autumn but the imago remains in the gallery throughout winter, until it emerges at the beginning of summer.
DAMAGES AND ELEMENTS OF DIAGNOSIS
The adults can be observed licking the exudations from the cankers of the trees, mainly caused by wounds due to bad pruning. The adults lay their eggs close to these open and oozing wounds as a way to access their main food supply, xylem.
The trees infected by initial attacks do not show any symptoms. When the population of the larvae and their size increases, some accumulations of sawdust can be observed. After the first adults emerge, exit holes filled with lots of sawdust are clearly shown. These insects continue reproducing on the same tree for years because the larvae feed on the xylem, therefore not causing the direct and immediate death of the tree. In any case, the crown of the affected tree loses vigour and defoliation increases over the years. If the insect attacks just one thick branch, only a part of the crown is affected. The destruction of the xylem vessels reduces the amount of water that flows up to the crown and as a consequence, the foliation decreases.
Tree greatly affected by Cerambyx
Exit hole used by the adults
However, a tree can live for many years under these conditions. The trees affected by Cerambyx tend to die for other reasons, caused by the wood losing its biomechanical resistance when bored by the larvae. This silent loss of resistance accumulates until the main branch system tears off.
In fact, the branches that break off are the largest, because they weigh more. Sometimes, the trees break lengthways through the middle. Therefore, it is a slow, hidden and silent process that takes many years to occur, given that it is cumulative. In an instant, it can end the life of a centenarian tree.
These attacks are of great importance in open woodlands and cork oak stands of Western Andalusia; Extremadura; and in oak groves of the Balearic Islands.
One detail to take into account is that the Cerambyx cerdo species is protected in the European Union, given that it is included in the Berne Convention, appendix 2: “Strictly protected fauna species”; under the Habitat Directive in appendix 2: “Sites of community importance” and appendix 4: “Strict protection regime species”; and classified as vulnerable by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature).
Diffuser of kairomones to attract both sexes of different species of Cerambyx.
Chemical formulation patented by the University of Huelva in exclusive use by SANIDAD AGRÍCOLA ECONEX, S.L.
The diffuser is in a blister pack and individually packaged in an aluminium sachet with label specifications. It lasts 60 days in field conditions. Once removed from the packaging, the diffuser needs no activation or opening, just placed correctly in the trap.
ECONEX CERAMBYX 60 DAYS
diffuser of kairomones and
packaging of the product
DETECTION AND MONITORING
1 or 2 CROSSTRAP® XYLOFAGOS WITH DRY COLLECTION CUP per ha. should be placed. The traps, together with the attractant, should be placed in the forest between June and August, depending on the target species.
To reinforce monitoring, up to 3 traps per hectare can be placed, separated from 100 to 500 metres apart from each other. The traps should be placed in trees with evidence of attacks, so attention should be paid to the exit holes and sawdust at their bases.
Dry capture is recommended as well as control of the traps every week or 15 days to avoid interfering with secondary fauna.
CROSSTRAP® XYLOFAGOS WITH DRY COLLECTION CUP
It is a trap specifically designed to capture insects that walk on the bark of trees. It is capable of adapting to the perimeter of the trunk due to its flexible funnel.
The trap consists of a 30 cm diameter soft funnel joined to a collection cup. A sheet of cellular polycarbonate is used as a folded cover, which should be placed in contact with the tree. The trap is fixed to the tree with two nylon cords. The lower cord holds the trap, joining the sheet and funnel through a series of holes and grooves on the sheet.
The upper cord is used to maintain the sheet attached to the tree. The sheet also has a series of lateral holes in which to place the attractant ECONEX CERAMBYX 60 DAYS.
The vanes, funnel and collection cup are treated with a slippery product that increases the amount of captures considerably, preventing the insects from escaping.
The trap is used together with the CROSSTRAP DRY COLLECTION CUP® for live captures (without liquid).
ECONEX CERAMBYX 60 DAYS diffuser placed in a
CROSSTRAP® XYLOFAGOS WITH DRY COLLECTION CUP
CROSSTRAP DRY COLLECTION CUP® has an approximate capacity of 2 litres. It measures 12.5 cm diameter x 19 cm high and is made of a stainless steel mesh that drains the rainwater 100% and eases air circulation. In addition, it has a slippery product to prevent the captured insects from escaping.
CROSSTRAP® DRY COLLECTION CUP
PLACEMENT AND HANDLING
Choose a part of the tree that is straight enough with no branches or large knots, which allow maximum contact of the funnel and the sheet with the surface of the tree. Hang the trap at a height of 120 cm.
Fit the grooves of the sheet with the border of the funnel. Pass the lower cord through the grooves, fixing the sheet to the funnel. Leave enough cord length to go round the perimeter of the tree and tie it with a tight knot. Before tightening the knot permanently, ensure there are no spaces between the funnel and the bark of the tree. Take this moment to adjust the sheet into the shape of a folded cover, as indicated in the photograph.
Once the lower cord has been tied properly, pass the upper cord through the upper holes of the sheet and adjust it to avoid separation from the tree.
The trap is activated by hanging the attractant diffuser ECONEX CERAMBYX 60 DAYS on one hole of the sheet with the clip provided.
Remove the trap once the trapping period has finished to avoid any incidences with secondary fauna.
TRAP MEASUREMENTS: The folded trap measures 33 cm diameter x 88 cm high. To make its transport easier, the trap is packaged with the sheets separated and the funnel folded.
STORING THE DIFFUSERS
The diffusers must be stored in their original packaging and in the refrigerator at 4 oC; or in the freezer at -18 oC, in which case they will last for 90 and 150 days respectively.
Phenology of Cerambyx cerdo
Phenology of Cerambyx welensii
Kairomonal liquid attractant to capture both sexes of different species of Cerambyx. To be used with an ECONEX CERAMBYX TRAP.
Chemical formulation patented by University of Huelva in exclusive use by SANIDAD AGRÍCOLA ECONEX, S.L.
To capture C. welensii, pour 250 ml of attractant into an ECONEX CERAMBYX TRAP and replace it every 3 or 4 days depending on the evaporation of the product.
The traps should be placed in June, to capture the peak flight period of this species.
For other species of Cerambyx, check the traps every week or 15 days, remove the captured insects and refill with 250 ml of the liquid attractant if necessary.
As it is a liquid attractant used for filling the traps, its duration in field conditions will depend on climate conditions such as humidity, temperature, sun exposure, etc.
The attractant must be stored in its original packaging in the refrigerator at 4 oC; or in the freezer at -18 oC, in which case it will last between 90 and 150 days respectively.
ECONEX CERAMBYX TRAP
In an effort to adapt the product to use it in large open woodlands, ECONEX has developed this disposable and economic trap. It is used together with the attractant ECONEX CERAMBYX 1 L.
The trap consists of a container with an inverted funnel in the upper part and two cords to tie it around the trunk of the tree.
Once it is attached correctly to the trunk, fill the trap with approximately 250 ml of ECONEX CERAMBYX 1 L liquid attractant.
It is recommended to place a trap in each tree with symptoms of attack by Cerambyx.
CROPS AND USES
Population monitoring in forests with Quercus spp. Place 1 or 2 ECONEX CERAMBYX TRAP per ha. The traps, together with the attractant, should be placed in the forest between June and August, depending on the target species.
ECONEX CERAMBYX 1 L PACKAGING
Corrugated cardboard box of 10 units.
Box size: 42x21x28 cm (length x width x height)
Box weight: 11 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50.
Pallet size: 120x100x170 cm (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 557 kg.
Box of 10 units
EMBALAJE ECONEX CERAMBYX 5 L
Corrugated cardboard box of 4 units.
Box size: 38x38x38 cm (length x width x height)
Box weight: 20 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50.
Pallet size: 120x80x190 cm (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 607 kg.
Box of 4 units
ECONEX CERAMBYX LEAFLET
Leaflet in PDF format that can be downloaded by clicking on the image.
ECONEX WEB RESOURCES
To access ECONEX WEB RESOURCES click on the image.